Southern California  ·  United States of America





Enhanced Parking Management Study

Tom Edgemon Recreational Resorts & Family Communities California TBNC-Edgemon CSLB 274107 Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers California Resorts USA




Representational Site Study Exhibits



An Electric Vehicle Charging Station, also called EVCS, and/or Electric Recharging Point, Charging Point, Charge Point and EVSE [Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment], is an element in an infrastructure that supplies electric energy for the recharging of electric vehicles, such as plug-in electric vehicles, including electric cars, neighborhood electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids.
As plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicle ownership is expanding, there is a growing need for widely distributed publicly accessible charging stations, some of which support faster charging at higher voltages and currents than are available from residential EVSEs.
Many charging stations are on-street facilities provided by electric utility companies or located at retail shopping centers and operated by many private companies. These charging stations provide one or a range of heavy duty or special connectors that conform to the variety of electric charging connector standards.




ChargePoint, formerly Coulomb Technologies [CT] is an electric vehicle infrastructure company, based in Campbell, California. Coulomb Technologies was founded in 2007 by Richard Lowenthal [CEO] and Praveen Mandal.
It has announced its expansion into Europe, the Middle East and Africa with the opening of Coulomb’s European headquarters represented by 365 Energy Group, a venture of Estag Capital AG, in Berlin, Germany. Coulomb Technologies' ChargePoint public charging stations are already in Australia.
CT offers ChargePoint Networked Charging Stations. Also CT ChargePoint Network includes public charging stations, a consumer subscription plan and utility grid management technology for electric utility companies to smooth electrical demands on the grid.
The CT Charging Station Designs are the result of close teamwork between Coulomb Technologies and inter4m.


Representational EV Charging Stations

In January 2009, the company's first charging stations were deployed and installed by REJ Electric Co. in downtown San Jose that drivers can access through a prepaid plan. The company is working with entities in Las Vegas Nevada, New York and Florida to do something similar there.

The first ChargePoint charging stations are installed and available for charging in downtown San Jose. Since its first charging station installation, Coulomb charging stations have been in more than twenty-seven [27] US states, Canada and Europe.

One thousand, eight hundred [1,800] planned 240-volt charge stations are being built through the ChargePoint America project. Sponsored by Coulomb Technologies, the thirty-seven million [$37 m] dollar project is backed by a fifteen [$15 m] million dollar DOE grant, provided through the Recovery Act.

ChargePoint America is expected to provide four thousand, six hundred [4,600] networked charging stations to homes and public locations by October 2011, adding to the existing ChargePoint Network. The ChargePoint America project will collect data on vehicle use and charging patterns, which will be analyzed by DOE's Idaho National Laboratory. Coulomb announced on 16 June 2010 that Orlando, Florida, was the first to install a ChargePoint networked charging station under the program.



Representational Corporate EV Partnerships

Ford Motor Co. will partner with Coulomb Technologies to provide nearly five thousand [5,000] free in-home charging stations for some of the automaker's first electric vehicle customers, under the Ford Blue Oval ChargePoint Program.

Coulomb has announced partnerships with GridPoint and Aker Wade for Level III Fast Charging stations.

Collaboratev is a joint project between ECOtality and ChargePoint.

ChargePoint, Inc.
254 East Hacienda Avenue · Campbell · California 95008
408.705.4406 Corporate · 866.480.2936 Toll Free



Representational EV Charging Station Signage

In the United States, the standard charging station sign is defined in the Federal Highway Administration's Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) 2009 edition.

See two examples of "D9-11b Electric Vehicle Charging" and "D9-11bP Electric Vehicle Charging" at "Figure 2I-1. General Service Signs and Plaques", page 301, Sect. 2I.02

In July 2013, FHWA released interim MUTCD approval for charging station signs located on public roads governed by MUTCD standards.

There is an open source, public domain European charge station sign proposed.



Although the rechargeable electric vehicles and equipment can be recharged from a domestic wall socket, a charging station is usually accessible to multiple electric vehicles and has additional current or connection sensing mechanisms to disconnect the power when the EV is not charging.

There are two main types of safety sensor:

Additional physical 'sensor wires' which provide a feedback signal such as specified by the undermentioned SAE J1772 and IEC 62196 schemes that require special [multi-pin] power plug fittings.

Until 2013, there was an issue where Blink Chargers were overheating and causing damage to both charger and car. The solution employed by the company was to reduce the maximum current.



Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles may not need much new infrastructure in developed countries, less than delivering a new alternative fuel over a new network. The stations can leverage the existing ubiquitous electrical grid and home recharging is an option.

For example, polls have shown that more than half of homeowners in the United States have access to a plug to charge their cars. Also most driving is local over short distances which reduces the need for charging mid-trip. In the USA, for example, seventy-eight [78%] percent of commutes are less than forty [40] miles [64 km] round-trip.

Nevertheless, longer drives between cities and towns require a network of public charging stations or another method to extend the range of electric vehicles beyond the normal daily commute. One challenge in such infrastructure is the level of demand: an isolated station along a busy highway may see hundreds of customers per hour if every passing electric vehicle has to stop there to complete the trip. In the first half of the 20th century, internal combustion vehicles faced a similar infrastructure problem.







A Tesla station is a planned second version of the Tesla supercharger station that as of June 2013 was planned to be provided by Tesla Motors to support owners of Tesla automobiles with proprietary charging station services, and was projected to be able to support both battery pack swaps as well as fast recharging of the Tesla Model S and Model X electric vehicle battery packs.

As of 17 December 2014, eighteen [18] months after the announcement, no battery swapping stations had yet opened to the public.

The existing first-generation Tesla supercharger stations allow Tesla cars to be fast-charged – in less than an hour – at the network, for no payment. As of 17 April 2016, Tesla currently operates 3,644 superchargers in 616 stations worldwide.

In October 2014 there were 119 standard Tesla supercharger stations operating in the United States, 76 in Europe, and 26 in Asia.

On 31 March 2016, Tesla CEO Elon Musk announced that the number of Supercharger stations would be doubled [from 613 stations with 3,628 chargers] by 2017.

As of June 2015, Hong Kong has the highest density of Tesla superchargers in the world, with eight [8] stations comprising a total of thirty-six [36] supercharger stalls.

In December 2014 the company announced a revision to their much-delayed plans. A single battery-swap station is to open in California in late-December, where only invited Model S owners may do battery swaps by appointment, as part of a pilot program to assess technical and economic aspects of the service.

Demand for the priced service—which is now expected to take three [3] minutes [instead of the 90-second time previously demonstrated]—will be used to determine whether the company will commercialize battery swapping stations more generally.

The originally announced plan in the June 2013 announcement explicitly indicated that the company would eventually upgrade all existing Tesla supercharger stations to become Tesla stations, which would offer the battery-pack swap for the Model S in addition to the fast recharge capability that each facility initially opened with.




Representational TESLA Supercharging

Tesla supercharging stations charge with up to 120 kW of power, or up to sixteen [16] times as fast as public charging stations; they take about twenty [20] minutes to charge to fifty [50%] percent, forty [40] minutes to charge to eighty [80%] percent, and seventy-five [75] minutes to one hundred [100%] percent.

The charging stations provide high-power direct-current [DC] charging power directly to the battery, bypassing the internal charging power supply.

Some of the Tesla supercharging stations use solar panels to offset energy use and provide shade. In the next few years after 2014, Tesla Motors plans to cover more stations with solar canopies to charge the Tesla vehicle as long as the vehicle is equipped with a supercharging system.


The cost for using the supercharger is covered with the purchase of the car with the purchase of sixty [60] kilowatt-hours models or higher.

Visit Tesla @ Off Site Web Presence

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Land-use planning is the term used for a branch of public policy encompassing various disciplines which seek to order and regulate land use in an efficient and ethical way, thus preventing land-use conflicts. Governments use land-use planning to manage the development of land within their jurisdictions. In doing so, the governmental unit can plan for the needs of the community while safeguarding natural resources. To this end, it is the systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternatives for land use, and economic and social conditions in order to select and adopt the best land-use options. Often one element of a comprehensive plan, a land-use plan provides a vision for the future possibilities of development in neighborhoods, districts, cities, or any defined planning area.

In the United States, the terms land-use planning, regional planning, urban planning, and urban design are often used interchangeably, and will depend on the state, county, and/or project in question. Despite confusing nomenclature, the essential function of land-use planning remains the same whatever term is applied. The Canadian Institute of Planners offers a definition that land-use planning means the scientific, aesthetic, and orderly disposition of land, resources, facilities and services with a view to securing the physical, economic and social efficiency, health and well-being of urban and rural communities. The American Planning Association states that the goal of land-use planning is to further the welfare of people and their communities by creating convenient, equitable, healthful, efficient, and attractive environments for present and future generations.



Land-use planning often leads to land-use regulations, also known as zoning, but they are not one and the same. As a tool for implementing land-use plans, zoning regulates the types of activities that can be accommodated on a given piece of land, the amount of space devoted to those activities and the ways that buildings may be placed and shaped.

The ambiguous nature of the term “planning”, as it relates to land use, is historically tied to the practice of zoning. Zoning in the US came about in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to protect the interests of property owners. The practice was found to be constitutionally sound by the Supreme Court decision of Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. in 1926. Soon after, the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act gave authority to the states to regulate land use. Even so, the practice remains controversial today.

The “taking clause” of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits the government from taking private property for public use without just compensation. One interpretation of the taking clause is that any restriction on the development potential of land through zoning regulation is a “taking”. A deep-rooted anti-zoning sentiment exists in America, that no one has the right to tell another what he can or cannot do with his land. Ironically, although people are often averse to being told how to develop their own land, they tend to expect the government to intervene when a proposed land use is undesirable.

Conventional zoning has not typically regarded the manner in which buildings relate to one another or the public spaces around them, but rather has provided a pragmatic system for mapping jurisdictions according to permitted land use. This system, combined with the interstate highway system, widespread availability of mortgage loans, growth in the automobile industry, and the over-all post-World War II economic expansion, destroyed most of the character that gave distinctiveness to American cities. The urban sprawl that most US cities began to experience in the mid-twentieth century was, in part, created by a flat approach to land-use regulations. Zoning without planning created unnecessarily exclusive zones. Thoughtless mapping of these zones over large areas was a big part of the recipe for suburban sprawl. It was from the deficiencies of this practice that land-use planning developed, to envision the changes that development would cause and mitigate the negative effects of such change.

As America grew and sprawl was rampant, the much-loved America of the older towns, cities, or streetcar suburbs essentially became illegal through zoning. Unparalleled growth and unregulated development changed the look and feel of landscapes and communities. They strained commercial corridors and affected housing prices, causing citizens to fear a decline in the social, economic and environmental attributes that defined their quality of life. Zoning regulations became politically contentious as developers, legislators, and citizens struggled over altering zoning maps in a way that was acceptable to all parties. Land use planning practices evolved as an attempt to overcome these challenges. It engages citizens and policy-makers to plan for development with more intention, foresight, and community focus than had been previously used.



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Environmental Planning concerns itself with the decision making processes where they are required for managing relationships that exist within and between natural systems and human systems. Environmental Planning endeavours to manage these processes in an effective, orderly, transparent and equitable manner for the benefit of all constituents within such systems for the present and for the future. Present day Environmental Planning Practices are the result of continuous refinement and expansion of the scope of such decision making processes.

Some of the main elements of present day environmental planning are:

Social & Economic Development / Urban Development & Redevelopment / Regional Development / Natural Resource Management & Integrated Land Use / Infrastructure and Intermodal Interconnectivity Systems / Governance Framework

The environmental planning assessments encompass areas such as land use, socioeconomics, transportation, economic and housing characteristics, air quality and air pollution, noise pollution, the wetlands, habitat of the endangered species, flood zones susceptibility, coastal zones erosion, and visual studies among others, and is referred to as an Integrated Environmental Planning Assessment [IEPA].

In the United States, for any project, environmental planners deal with a full range of environmental regulations from federal to state and city levels, administered federally by the Environmental Protection Agency [EPA].

A rigorous environmental process has to be undertaken to examine the impacts and possible mitigation of any construction project. Depending on the scale and impact of the project, an extensive environmental review is known as an Environmental Impact Statement [EIS], and the less extensive version is Environmental Assessment [EA]. Procedures follow guidelines from National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA], State Environmental Quality Review Act [SEQRA] and/or City Environmental Quality Review [CEQR], and other related federal or state agencies published regulations.

The Association of Environmental Professionals (AEP) is a non-profit organization of interdisciplinary professionals including environmental science, resource management, environmental planning and other professions contributing to this field. AEP is the first organization of its kind in the USA, and its influence and model have spawned numerous other regional organizations throughout the United States. Its mission is to improve the technical skills of members, and the organization is dedicated to "the enhancement, maintenance and protection of the natural and human environment". From inception in the mid 1970s the organization has been closely linked with the maintenance of the California Environmental Quality Act [CEQA], due to California being one of the first states to adopt a comprehensive legal framework to govern the environmental review of public policy and project review.



TBNC was established in 1999 to provide environmental consultancy services, .... encompassing urban and site-specific planning and design, landscape and three-dimensional architecture, engineering and community / governmental agency dialogue, and project management.

The scope and scale of TBNC services is specifically crafted to the goals established by the client, from initial feasibility and economic studies to the ultimate delivery of the projected program.

TBNC is a professional collaborate of more than one hundred firms, agencies and individuals, comprising a broad spectrum of discipline.


TBNC Tom Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers California & Arizona CA.CSLB 274107 Edgemon USA

an interdisciplinary planning & design collaboration

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